English Grammar Rules For SSC CGL
Hello friends, Welcome to ExamsKart.com I hope you are doing well. As we all know English Grammar plays a key role in Exams like SSC CGL/CHSL/CPO and other government Exams. Therefore today we are sharing with you Commonly asked English grammar rules to help you score well in your English grammar section of SSC CGL/CPO/CHSL and other exams.
English Grammar Rules
Rule-1: Adjective of quantity like much, some, enough, any, whole, much, sufficient, etc. should be used with uncountable nouns only.
Ex.- There is many milk in the bottle. (Incorrect)
There is much milk in the bottle. (Correct)
Rule-2: With Numeral Adjective only countable nouns such as many, few, a number of, all, etc. are used.
Ex.- There are much stars in the sky. (Incorrect)
There are many stars in the sky. (Correct)
Rule-3: All, no, some, enough, any, most, etc. can be used both as Numeral adjective and Quantitative adjective as they can express quantity as well as number.
Ex.-There are no in the class (Adj. of Number)
There is no oil in the container. (Adj. of quantity)
Rule-4: The comparative adjectives such as senior, superior, junior, etc. take “to” after them not “than”.
Ex.-Akash is senior than me. (Incorrect)
Akash is senior to me. (Correct)
Rule-5: In a sentence when two adjectives require two different prepositions.
Ex.- Anil is senior and more experienced than you. (Incorrect)
Anil is senior to and more experienced than you. (Correct)
Rule-6: Comparative degree should not be used when using “times” in a sentence.
Ex.- My car is two times bigger than yours. (Incorrect)
My car is two times as big as yours. (correct)
Rule-7: Double Superlative or comparative adjectives must not be used together.
Ex.-Ram is more senior than me. (Incorrect)
Ram is senior to me. (Correct)
Ex.-Coffee is more preferable than tea. (Incorrect)
Coffee is preferable to tea. (Correct)
Rule-8: Superlative Degree should be used when comparing more than two persons or things and Comparative degree should be used when comparing two persons or things only.
Ex.-Amit is the tallest of the two brothers? (Incorrect)
Amit is taller of the two brothers? (Correct) Ex.-Amit is the better of all the players. (Incorrect)
Amit is the best of all the players. (Correct)
Rule-9: When we compare two qualities of the same person or thing then Positive + “more” is used before the Adjective instead of Comparative degree ending with ‘er’.
Ex.- He is braver than wise. (Incorrect)
He is more brave than wise. (Correct)
Rule-10: Article “The” is always used before superlative adjectives.
Ex.-Rohit is best boy of the class. (Incorrect)
Rohit is the best boy of the class. (Correct)
Rule-11: With some adjectives such as major, minor, perfect, full, complete, last, entire, unique, chief, extreme, empty, eternal, universal, sound, square, impossible, supreme, everlasting infinite etc. Comparative or superlative adjectives are not used.
Ex.- Your English is most perfect. (Incorrect)
Your English is perfect. (Correct)
Rule-12 The use of ‘few’, ‘a few’ and ‘the few’.
- Few means ‘NOT MANY’(Number).
Ex.-There are few girls in the class.
Ex.-There are few coins in his pocket.
- A few means ‘SOME AT LEAST’ (Number).
Ex.-I have a few good books.
Ex.-He should rest for a few days.
- The few means ‘WHATEVER THERE IS’(Number).
Ex.-The master taught the few students that had come.
Ex.-The few books she has written are best sellers.
Rule-13 Use of little, a little, the little
- Little means ‘hardly any’ (Quantity)
Ex.-Ram had little money.
Ex.-There is little oil in the container.
Ex.-There is little milk in the refrigerator.
- A little means ‘Some’ if not much (Quantity)
Ex.-I have a little food left.
I speak a little English.
He put a little sugar in his tea.
- The little means ‘not much(Quantity) but all that is left’.
Ex.-He gave me the little Food he had.
The little milk that was in the bottle spilled.
The little information the police had was not enough.
Rule-14: Use of Elder/Older
- Elder is used for Blood Relation in comparing age and “to” is used after this.
Ex.-Reema is elder than Sonam. (Incorrect)
Reema is elder to Sonam. (Correct)
- Older is used when comparing age of non-related person or non-living things and we use than after it.
Ex.-Ram is older to Ramesh. (Incorrect)
Ram is older than Ramesh. (Correct)
Rule-15: Use of Further/Farther
- Farther Denotes Distance
Ex.-Agra is further from Mumbai than Delhi. (Incorrect)
Agra is farther from Mumbai than Delhi. (Correct)
- Further means Next, also.
Ex.-Don’t make any farther delay. (Incorrect)
Don’s make any Further delay. (Correct)
Rule-16: Use of Fewer/Less
- Fewer is used to show Number and always used with Plural Countable Noun.
Ex.-No Less than five students were present in the Exam. (Incorrect)
No fewer than five students were present in the Exam. (correct)
- Less is used to show quantity and always used with Uncountable Noun.
Ex.-Not fewer than 5 kilograms of sugar was there in the container. (Incorrect)
Not Less than 5 kilograms of sugar was there in the container. (correct)
Rule-17: Use of Later/Latter
- Later is used to show time
Ex.-Arvind came latter than Sunil. (Incorrect)
Arvind came later than Sunil. (Correct)
- Latter is used to show order/position
Ex.-The later point in the book is not clearly mentioned. (Incorrect)
The latter point in the book is not clearly mentioned. (Correct)
Rule-18: Use of Nearest/Next
- Nearest is used to show distance
Ex.-New Delhi is my nearest Metro Station.
- Next is used to show order
Ex.- Rohit is seating next to me.
Rule-19: “Any” is used with interrogative and negative sentence whereas “Some” is used with the affirmative sentence.
Ex.-I don’t want some fruits. (Incorrect)
I don’t want any fruits (Correct)
Ex.- He will have any milk. (Incorrect)
He will have some milk. (Correct)
Rule-20: Positive degree adjective is used before “Enough” not Comparative degree adjective.
Ex.- He is smarter enough to get selected for this prestigious post. (Incorrect) He is smart enough to get selected for this prestigious post. (Correct)
Rule-1: “Seldom or never”, “seldom if ever” both are correct but “Seldom or ever” is incorrect use.
Ex.-Ram seldom or ever goes to see movies. (Incorrect)
Ram seldom or never goes to see movies. (Correct)
Rule-2: “Else” is used before “but”
Ex.-Amit has no one else to talk to except his brother. (Incorrect)
Amit has no one else to talk to but his brother. (Correct)
Rule-3: Adverbs “hardly, seldom, never, nowhere, nothing, scarcely, barely, neither, rarely” have negative meaning therefor should not be used with any other negative words.
Ex.-Seema hardly knows nothing about rita. (Incorrect)
Seema hardly knows anything about rita. (Correct)
Rule-4: Helping verb should be used after an adverb
Ex.-Seldom she comes to Agra. (Incorrect)
Seldom does she come to Agra. (Correct)
Ex.-No sooner he reached the station than the train left. (Incorrect)
No sooner did he reach the station than the train left. (Correct)
Rule-5: Adverb “as” should be used with verbs (describe, regard, treat, define, know, view) and not with (elect, name, consider, think, appoint, call, choose, make).
Ex.-I regard her my sister. (Incorrect)
I regard her as my sister. (Correct)
Ex.-She thinks him as a fool. (Incorrect)
She thinks him a fool. (Correct)
Rule-6: Negative sentences like “not” or “never” should not be used with words such as forbid, deny, unless, until, both etc.
Ex.-Both of them are not going there. (Incorrect)
Neither of them is going there. (correct)
Rule-7: Use of Very/Much
Very is used with positive degree adjective.
Ex.- Ram is much intelligent. (Incorrect)
Ram is very Intelligent. (Correct)
Much is used with Comparative degree adjective.
Ex.- Ram is very stronger than Ramesh. (Incorrect)
Ram is much stronger than Ramesh. (Correct)
Rule-8: Use of Before/Ago
Before is used with both past and future tenses
Ex.- He went to Delhi ago my marriage. (Incorrect)
He went to Delhi before my marriage. (Correct)
Ago is used only for past tense
Ex.- I saw him 2 years before. (Incorrect)
I saw him 2 years ago. (Correct)
Rule-9: Adverb “Enough” is placed after the word which it qualifies.
Ex.-He is enough rich to help the poor. (Incorrect)
He is rich enough to help the poor. (Correct)
Ex.-She runs enough fast. (Incorrect)
She runs fast enough. (Correct)
Rule-10: Use of Fairly/Rather
Fairly is used before favorable adjectives whereas Rather is used before unfavorable adjectives.
Ex.-She is fairly stupid. (Incorrect)
She is rather stupid. (Correct)
Rule-11: “Rather” is used before “too” not “Fairly”.
Ex.-She is fairly too good. (Incorrect)
She is rather too good. (Correct)
Rule-12: Adverb “Too” means more than enough and used with unpleasant adjectives. It should not be used in the place of “very or much”.
Ex.-He is too glad too meet you. (Incorrect)
He is very glad to meet you. (Correct)
Rule-13: Use of Hard/Hardly.
“Hard” means Stiff/solid/firm and is used as adverb and adjective both whereas “Hardly” means scarcely/barely and is used as adverb only.
Ex.-He worked hardly and got first rank. (Incorrect)
He worked hard and got first rank. (Correct)
Ex.-Neither reema or seema has completed the work. (Incorrect)
Neither reema nor seema has completed the work. (Correct)
Rule-2: Both…. And
Ex.-Both Amit as well as Anil have come. (Incorrect)
Both Amit and Anil have come. (Correct)
Rule-3: Hardly or Scarcely …… when or before
Ex.-Hardly had he left the class than the children made a noise. (Incorrect)
Hardly had he left the class when the children made a noise. (Correct)
Rule-4: No sooner……. than
Ex.-No sooner did he enter into the class when the children stood up. (Incorrect)
No sooner did he enter into the class than the children stood up. (Correct)
Rule-5: Not only………but also
Ex.-Not only Rakesh was fined but also expelled. (Incorrect)
Rakesh was not only fined but also expelled. (Correct)
Rule-6: Although/Though……yet or comma
Ex.-Though she is old but she is strong. (Incorrect)
Though she is old yet she is strong. (Correct)
Rule-7: The reason/The reason why……that
Ex.-The reason why Aarti is absent is because she is sick. (Incorrect)
The reason why Aarti is absent is that she is sick. (Correct)
Rule-8: Other/Rather……. Than
Ex.-Priya is no other but my sister. (Incorrect)
Priya is no other than my sister. (Correct)
Rule-9: Use of “Unless/Until”
Unless used to show Condition and Until is used to show time
Ex.-I shall wait here unless my brother comes. (Incorrect)
I shall wait here until my friend comes. (Correct)
Rule-10: “That” is not used with Interrogative or Imperative Expression.
Ex.-He asked her that what her name was. (Incorrect)
He asked her what her name was. (Correct)
Rule-1: Use of Among/Between
Between is used in reference to the association of two whereas Among is used in reference to the association of more than two.
Ex.-The teacher distributed test paper among students.
Ex.-The match will be played between India and New Zealand.
Rule-2: Each/Every should not be used after “Between”.
Ex.-There are hundred centimeters between each meter. (Incorrect)
There are hundred centimeters between a meter. (Correct)
Rule-3: Use of Beside/Besides
Beside means adjacent to and besides means apart from.
Ex.-She sat besides me. (Incorrect)
She sat beside me. (Correct)
Rule-4: Use of for/Since
For denotes period of time whereas since denotes a point in time.
Ex.-He has been living in Delhi for five years.
I have been living here since 1995.
Rule-5: Use of on time/In time
On time means on schedule time and in time means in given time span.
Ex.-He reached the college in time.
Ex.-The Test Starts on time.
Rule-6: Use of by/With
By indicates the doer whereas with indicates means/equipment.
Ex.-The Snake was killed by her with a stone.
Rule-7: Use of Before/In front of
“Before” means in advance or at an earlier time whereas “in front of” indicates directly before or ahead of.
Ex.-He came before me.
Ex.-Don’t park your vehicle in front of a school.
Rule-8: Use of at/In
“At” is used with a relatively small area or place and “In” is used with a relatively bigger place.
Ex.-I live at Saket in Delhi.
Rule-9: “Tomorrow, today, the following day, yesterday, the next day, yesterday evening, last night, yesterday afternoon, this afternoon, this morning, tonight, tomorrow evening, tomorrow morning” do not take preposition with them.
Ex.-She will go there on tomorrow morning. (Incorrect)
She will go there tomorrow morning. (Correct)
Rule-10: If two adjectives, verb etc. take different prepositions then we should mention both prepositions accordingly.
Ex.-She is junior and younger than I. (Incorrect)
She is junior to and younger than I. (Correct)
Rule-11: In a sentence when “to” is used as a preposition then it is followed by “Verb (first form) + ing”.
Ex.-He is afraid of go out after sunset. (Incorrect)
He is afraid of going out after sunset. (Correct)
Subject verb agreement
Rule-1: Singular subject take singular verb and plural subject take plural verb.
Ex.-This apple are very sweet. (Incorrect)
This apple is very sweet. (Correct)
Ex.-These mangoes is very sweet. (Incorrect)
These mangoes are very sweet. (Correct)
Rule-2: Two or more singular subjects joined by “and” usually take plural verb.
Ex.-Sahil and Sohan is going to the party. (Incorrect)
Sahil and Sohan are going to the party. (Correct)
Rule-3: When two singular Nouns are joined by “and” make reference to the same person or thing will take singular verb.
Ex.- A black and white cow are grazing in the field. (Incorrect)
A black and white cow is grazing in the field. (Correct)
Note: – When article a/an/the is used with both nouns then plural verb will be used.
Ex.- A black and a white cow is grazing in the field. (Incorrect)
A black and a white cow are grazing in the field. (Correct)
Rule-4: When Each and Every is used before two singular verbs joined by “and” then singular verb will be used.
Ex.-Every Man and Woman were shocked. (Incorrect)
Every Man and Woman was shocked. (Correct)
Rule-5: Singular verb and Singular Nouns is used with “Every, Each, Neither and Either”
Ex.-Every boys has passed. (Incorrect)
Every boys have passed. (Incorrect)
Every boy has passed. (Correct)
Rule-6: With “A number of” plural noun and plural verb is used.
Ex.-A number of girls has come. (Incorrect)
A number of girl has come. (Incorrect)
A number of girls have come. (Correct)
Rule-7: With “The Number of” plural noun and singular verb is used.
Ex.- The number of candidates are increasing. (Incorrect)
The number of candidate are increasing. (Incorrect)
The number of candidates is increasing. (Correct)
Rule-8: “Everyone, Someone, No one, Anyone, Everybody, Somebody, no body, Anybody, Nothing, anything etc.” takes singular verb.
Ex.-Nothing were found. (Incorrect)
Nothing was found. (Correct)
Rule-9: With “Few/a Few/ the Few” plural noun and verb is used whereas with “Little/a Little/the Little” uncountable noun and singular verb is used.
Ex.-A few girls has come. (Incorrect)
A few girls have come. (Correct)
Ex. A little milk were spilled. (Incorrect)
A little milk was spilled. (Correct)
Rule-10: If two subjects are joined by “with, as well as, together with, in addition to, along, and not, rather than, like, besides, except, headed by, accompanied by, led by, governed by, etc.” then verb is used as per first subject.
Ex.-Swati as well as her friends are coming. (Incorrect)
Swati as well as her friends is coming. (Correct)
Rule-11: If two subjects are joined by “Neither…nor, Either…or, Not only…. but also” then verb is used as per the nearest subject.
Ex.-Either you or he are to go. (Incorrect)
Either you or he is to go. (Correct)
Rule-12: If “amount of/quantity of” is used with uncountable noun then singular verb will be used.
Ex.-The quantity of milk are not enough. (Incorrect)
The quantity of milk is not enough. (Correct)
Rule-1: If a sentence starts with “It’s time” or “It’s high time” and a subject is used after this then second form of verb is used with that subject.
Ex.-It’s time he should play. (Incorrect)
It’s time he played.
Note: – If “to” is used after “its’ time” then first form of verb will be used.
Ex.- It’s time to play.
Rule-2: If past time is given in a sentence like “yesterday, 5 years ago etc.”, the sentence should be in simple past tense.
Ex.-I have come here 2 years ago. (Incorrect)
I came here 2 years ago. (Correct)
Rule-3: If in a sentence (everyday, daily, regularly, always, seldom, hardly, never, usually, scarcely, sometimes, generally, often, once a week, etc.) words are used to show time then the verb of that sentence will be in present indefinite tense.
Ex.-She is always coming first. (Incorrect)
She always comes first. (Correct)
Rule-4: For universal truth Present Indefinite tense is used.
Ex.-The moon is moving round the earth. (Incorrect)
The moon moves round the earth. (Correct)
Rule-5: When “Now/at present/these days/at this moment etc.” are used to show time then the verb of that sentence will be in present continuous tense.
Ex.-She reads now. (Incorrect)
She is reading now. (Correct)